The Saratov Airlines jet vanished minutes after take-off and crashed near the village of Argunovo, about 80km (50 miles) south-east of Moscow.
The cause of crash is unclear. Investigators and emergency crews are working at the snow-covered site.
The Antonov An-148 was en route to the city of Orsk in the Ural mountains.
Pieces of wreckage and bodies were found spread over a large area. One of the flight recorders has been recovered, officials say.
President Vladimir Putin has expressed his condolences to the victims' families and announced an inquiry into the cause of the crash.
This is the first commercial passenger jet crash for more than a year - 2017 was the safest year on record for air travel.